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creighto
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PostPosted: Mon Mar 26, 2018 3:01 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I can't figure out why grub doesn't work. So I guess I will try Lilo next.
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NeddySeagoon
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PostPosted: Mon Mar 26, 2018 8:08 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

creighto,

Grub seems to work for most people.

Post your
Code:
df -Th
with your boot mouted.
The output of
Code:
ls -l /boot/grub
and the content of grub.cfg or grub.conf. You will only have one of those.
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PostPosted: Tue Mar 27, 2018 2:35 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Code:
df -Th...

Filesystem     Type      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
udev           devtmpfs   10M  4.0K   10M   1% /dev
tmpfs          tmpfs     440M   59M  382M  14% /
/dev/sdb1      iso9660   297M  297M     0 100% /mnt/cdrom
/dev/loop0     squashfs  278M  278M     0 100% /mnt/livecd
tmpfs          tmpfs      88M  636K   88M   1% /run
shm            tmpfs     440M     0  440M   0% /dev/shm
cgroup_root    tmpfs      10M     0   10M   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
tmpfs          tmpfs     440M     0  440M   0% /mnt/livecd/usr/portage
/dev/sda4      ext4      227G   11G  205G   5% /mnt/gentoo
/dev/sdc1      vfat      3.8G  103M  3.7G   3% /mnt/usb
/dev/sda2      ext2      124M  9.3M  109M   8% /mnt/usb/tempmnt


Code:
ls -l /boot/...

total 7916
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2541293 Mar 20 09:03 System.map-4.9.76-gentoo-r1
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  145069 Mar 20 09:03 config-4.9.76-gentoo-r1
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root    1024 Mar 25 20:01 grub
drwx------ 2 root root   12288 Mar 11 18:37 lost+found
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5370400 Mar 20 09:03 vmlinuz-4.9.76-gentoo-r1


Code:
grub.cfg...

#
# DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE
#
# It is automatically generated by grub-mkconfig using templates
# from /etc/grub.d and settings from /etc/default/grub
#

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/00_header ###
if [ -s $prefix/grubenv ]; then
  load_env
fi
if [ "${next_entry}" ] ; then
   set default="${next_entry}"
   set next_entry=
   save_env next_entry
   set boot_once=true
else
   set default="0"
fi

if [ x"${feature_menuentry_id}" = xy ]; then
  menuentry_id_option="--id"
else
  menuentry_id_option=""
fi

export menuentry_id_option

if [ "${prev_saved_entry}" ]; then
  set saved_entry="${prev_saved_entry}"
  save_env saved_entry
  set prev_saved_entry=
  save_env prev_saved_entry
  set boot_once=true
fi

function savedefault {
  if [ -z "${boot_once}" ]; then
    saved_entry="${chosen}"
    save_env saved_entry
  fi
}

function load_video {
  if [ x$feature_all_video_module = xy ]; then
    insmod all_video
  else
    insmod efi_gop
    insmod efi_uga
    insmod ieee1275_fb
    insmod vbe
    insmod vga
    insmod video_bochs
    insmod video_cirrus
  fi
}

if [ x$feature_default_font_path = xy ] ; then
   font=unicode
else
insmod part_msdos
insmod ext2
set root='hd0,msdos4'
if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
  search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint-bios=hd0,msdos4 --hint-efi=hd0,msdos4 --hint-baremetal=ahci0,msdos4  43f61d9c-aefc-41aa-a7f0-3b7f20a797e0
else
  search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root 43f61d9c-aefc-41aa-a7f0-3b7f20a797e0
fi
    font="/usr/share/grub/unicode.pf2"
fi

if loadfont $font ; then
  set gfxmode=auto
  load_video
  insmod gfxterm
fi
terminal_output gfxterm
if [ x$feature_timeout_style = xy ] ; then
  set timeout_style=menu
  set timeout=5
# Fallback normal timeout code in case the timeout_style feature is
# unavailable.
else
  set timeout=5
fi
### END /etc/grub.d/00_header ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/10_linux ###
menuentry 'Gentoo GNU/Linux' --class gentoo --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os $menuentry_id_option 'gnulinux-simple-43f61d9c-aefc-41aa-a7f0-3b7f20a797e0' {
   load_video
   insmod gzio
   insmod part_msdos
   insmod ext2
   set root='hd0,msdos2'
   if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
     search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint-bios=hd0,msdos2 --hint-efi=hd0,msdos2 --hint-baremetal=ahci0,msdos2  64894804-83c6-45c2-8ec3-270b1b9a76d1
   else
     search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root 64894804-83c6-45c2-8ec3-270b1b9a76d1
   fi
   echo   'Loading Linux 4.9.76-gentoo-r1 ...'
   linux   /vmlinuz-4.9.76-gentoo-r1 root=/dev/sda4 ro 
}
submenu 'Advanced options for Gentoo GNU/Linux' $menuentry_id_option 'gnulinux-advanced-43f61d9c-aefc-41aa-a7f0-3b7f20a797e0' {
   menuentry 'Gentoo GNU/Linux, with Linux 4.9.76-gentoo-r1' --class gentoo --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os $menuentry_id_option 'gnulinux-4.9.76-gentoo-r1-advanced-43f61d9c-aefc-41aa-a7f0-3b7f20a797e0' {
      load_video
      insmod gzio
      insmod part_msdos
      insmod ext2
      set root='hd0,msdos2'
      if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
        search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint-bios=hd0,msdos2 --hint-efi=hd0,msdos2 --hint-baremetal=ahci0,msdos2  64894804-83c6-45c2-8ec3-270b1b9a76d1
      else
        search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root 64894804-83c6-45c2-8ec3-270b1b9a76d1
      fi
      echo   'Loading Linux 4.9.76-gentoo-r1 ...'
      linux   /vmlinuz-4.9.76-gentoo-r1 root=/dev/sda4 ro 
   }
   menuentry 'Gentoo GNU/Linux, with Linux 4.9.76-gentoo-r1 (recovery mode)' --class gentoo --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os $menuentry_id_option 'gnulinux-4.9.76-gentoo-r1-recovery-43f61d9c-aefc-41aa-a7f0-3b7f20a797e0' {
      load_video
      insmod gzio
      insmod part_msdos
      insmod ext2
      set root='hd0,msdos2'
      if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
        search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint-bios=hd0,msdos2 --hint-efi=hd0,msdos2 --hint-baremetal=ahci0,msdos2  64894804-83c6-45c2-8ec3-270b1b9a76d1
      else
        search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root 64894804-83c6-45c2-8ec3-270b1b9a76d1
      fi
      echo   'Loading Linux 4.9.76-gentoo-r1 ...'
      linux   /vmlinuz-4.9.76-gentoo-r1 root=/dev/sda4 ro single
   }
}

### END /etc/grub.d/10_linux ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/20_linux_xen ###
### END /etc/grub.d/20_linux_xen ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober ###
### END /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/40_custom ###
# This file provides an easy way to add custom menu entries.  Simply type the
# menu entries you want to add after this comment.  Be careful not to change
# the 'exec tail' line above.
### END /etc/grub.d/40_custom ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/41_custom ###
if [ -f  ${config_directory}/custom.cfg ]; then
  source ${config_directory}/custom.cfg
elif [ -z "${config_directory}" -a -f  $prefix/custom.cfg ]; then
  source $prefix/custom.cfg;
fi
### END /etc/grub.d/41_custom ###


code tags added by NeddySeagoon
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NeddySeagoon
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PostPosted: Tue Mar 27, 2018 7:58 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

creighto,

From reading grub.cfg I guess that dev/sda4 is root and /dev/sda2 is /boot ?
Code:
/dev/sda4      ext4      227G   11G  205G   5% /mnt/gentoo
/dev/sda2      ext2      124M  9.3M  109M   8% /mnt/usb/tempmnt

The mounting arrangement I've quoted above won't work.

When you chroot /mnt/gentoo and install grub, /mnt/usb/tempmnt, is left outside the chroot' so grub cannot be installed there

You need
Code:
/dev/sda4      ext4      227G   11G  205G   5% /mnt/gentoo
/dev/sda2      ext2      124M  9.3M  109M   8% /mnt/gentoo/boot


When you chroot to /mnt/gentoo, you are lef with effectively
You need
Code:
/dev/sda4      ext4      227G   11G  205G   5% /
/dev/sda2      ext2      124M  9.3M  109M   8% /boot
so grub can be correctly installed.
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creighto
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PostPosted: Tue Mar 27, 2018 8:19 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

NeddySeagoon wrote:
creighto,

From reading grub.cfg I guess that dev/sda4 is root and /dev/sda2 is /boot ?



That's correct.

Quote:

Code:
/dev/sda4      ext4      227G   11G  205G   5% /mnt/gentoo
/dev/sda2      ext2      124M  9.3M  109M   8% /mnt/usb/tempmnt

The mounting arrangement I've quoted above won't work.

When you chroot /mnt/gentoo and install grub, /mnt/usb/tempmnt, is left outside the chroot' so grub cannot be installed there



Sorry about that, that's just where I mounted /dev/sda2 so that I could skip the chroot operations. /dev/sda2 is normally mounted on /boot. I was in a bit of a rush this morning when I did this.
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 29, 2018 3:20 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

So I switched to lilo, followed the directions in the gentoo lilo handbook, and ended up with a kernel panic.

I'm beside myself.
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 29, 2018 9:54 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

If I boot into the minimal-install and chroot to /mnt/gentoo, would the output of lsmod tell me what I need to include into a module-less monolithic kernel config? I was trying to use a generic kernel with modules to work, before switching to a monolithic kernel, but it doesn't look like I understand what options that I'm missing.
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 29, 2018 10:23 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Try using the kernel and initramfs from system rescue dd. Once you are booting then you can build and test other kernels.
I guess sysrescuecd has a /lib/modules to copy.

I don't know if sysrescuecd has a config built-in but you could try "zcat /proc/config.gz >/mnt/gentoo/usr/src/linux/.config" then chroot and try building your kernel with that config also.
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 29, 2018 10:29 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

creighto wrote:
So I switched to lilo, followed the directions in the gentoo lilo handbook, and ended up with a kernel panic.

I'm beside myself.

Don't worry, you are making progress! :) it's getting to the kernel, so that's one less thing to worry about.
This is a common reason for a kernel panic, maybe that's what you see?
https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Knowledge_Base:Unable_to_mount_root_fs
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 29, 2018 10:37 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

skellr wrote:

This is a common reason for a kernel panic, maybe that's what you see?
https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Knowledge_Base:Unable_to_mount_root_fs


I don't know. I was too disgusted to pay any attention to why it panicked.
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 29, 2018 10:43 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

creighto wrote:
skellr wrote:

This is a common reason for a kernel panic, maybe that's what you see?
https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Knowledge_Base:Unable_to_mount_root_fs


I don't know. I was too disgusted to pay any attention to why it panicked.

We've been there, it's not just you. It will still be there after a beer. ;)
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PostPosted: Fri Mar 30, 2018 3:29 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

skellr wrote:

This is a common reason for a kernel panic, maybe that's what you see?
https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Knowledge_Base:Unable_to_mount_root_fs


Yes, that's why it panicked.
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PostPosted: Fri Mar 30, 2018 9:07 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Code:
/dev/sda4      ext4      227G   11G  205G   5% /mnt/gentoo
/dev/sda2      ext2      124M  9.3M  109M   8% /mnt/usb/tempmnt

Is that from /etc/fstab? What, exactly does /etc/fstab look like after you chroot? It should look like this:
Code:
/dev/sda4      ext4      227G   11G  205G   5% /
/dev/sda2      ext2      124M  9.3M  109M   8% /boot

How are you telling the kernel where root is?

You might have:
1. a grub (legacy) command line like this: "kernel /boot/kernel-genkernel-x86-3.8.13-gentoo root=/dev/sda3"
2. a similar line with a UUID instead of /dev/sda3
3. a line like "root=/dev/sda3" inside the kernel (I forget where that is configured possibly https://cateee.net/lkddb/web-lkddb/BLK_CMDLINE_PARSER.html)
4. default is the partition where the kernel was loaded, the gpt in the first layout you tried, /boot in most. Do you have grub installed on /dev/sda3?

Most people use #1 or #2 . If your grub has no kernel command line, you are still OK if you have grub booting from a partition and it happens to be the root partition, but better to use #1 or #2.

I'm speaking of non-raid. I know zero about raid.
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PostPosted: Fri Mar 30, 2018 5:29 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

creighto,

What are the. numbers in
Code:
... or unknown-block(2,0)

That's the (major,minor) numbers that the kernel is trying to mount as root.

(0,0) means you have a bit missing from your SCSI stack.
(8,4) is sda4, that would indicate that the kernel can see something at sda4 but not read it.
(2,0) from the wiki is your first floppy drive.

The kernel may have said
Code:
Unable to find root device in <list_of _devices>.

Its possible for <list_of _devices> to be empty too.

If you have several HDD, your kernel may not enumerate them in the same order as the install media kernel, so while (8,4) is encouraging, it might be the right partition on the wrong drive.

Putting your lspci and kernel .config onto a pastebin site would be good.
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PostPosted: Fri Mar 30, 2018 6:07 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

NeddySeagoon wrote:
creighto,

What are the. numbers in
Code:
... or unknown-block(2,0)


(8,4) is sda4, that would indicate that the kernel can see something at sda4 but not read it.



This one.
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PostPosted: Fri Mar 30, 2018 6:15 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Tony0945 wrote:
Code:
/dev/sda4      ext4      227G   11G  205G   5% /mnt/gentoo
/dev/sda2      ext2      124M  9.3M  109M   8% /mnt/usb/tempmnt

Is that from /etc/fstab?


No, that's the output from df, I think.

Quote:


You might have:
1. a grub (legacy) command line like this: "kernel /boot/kernel-genkernel-x86-3.8.13-gentoo root=/dev/sda3"
2. a similar line with a UUID instead of /dev/sda3
3. a line like "root=/dev/sda3" inside the kernel (I forget where that is configured possibly https://cateee.net/lkddb/web-lkddb/BLK_CMDLINE_PARSER.html)
4. default is the partition where the kernel was loaded, the gpt in the first layout you tried, /boot in most. Do you have grub installed on /dev/sda3?

Most people use #1 or #2 . If your grub has no kernel command line, you are still OK if you have grub booting from a partition and it happens to be the root partition, but better to use #1 or #2.


Well, I don't do any of those things. I'm using lilo now, as grub:2 couldn't get to the kernel for some unknown reason. In the lilo handbook it tells me to "root=/dev/sda4" inside the lilo.conf, which is close to #2 but not quite. I don't know what UUID is or how to use it.
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PostPosted: Fri Mar 30, 2018 7:33 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

creighto,

lilo would want an append line in lilo.conf for all the kernel parameters.

(8,4) is the kernel looking at the right partition.

Do you have only one HDD?
If so its not looking at the wrong HDD.

Check your kernel for
Code:
 $ grep EXT4 /usr/src/linux/.config
CONFIG_EXT4_FS=y

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PostPosted: Fri Mar 30, 2018 8:14 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

NeddySeagoon wrote:
creighto,

lilo would want an append line in lilo.conf for all the kernel parameters.


Well, I don't have an append line in my lilo config. What do I need to add and where?

Quote:


(8,4) is the kernel looking at the right partition.


It should be looking at /dev/sda4

Quote:

Do you have only one HDD?
If so its not looking at the wrong HDD.


Fdisk reports that there is a /dev/sdb1 with a hidden HPFS/NTFS filesystem, and that its bootable, but I don't know what is on it or what to do about it. Ironicly, prior to installing grub the first time, the bios could see this partion as a Windoze recovery something-or-other, but it can no longer see it in the one-time boot menu. Perhaps I should mount it and have a look around.

mount responds to
Code:
 mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/sdb1
with
Code:
mount: /mnt/sdb1: /dev/sdb1 already mounted or mount point busy


It would be impossible for /mnt/sdb1 to be busy, since I just created the directory. How do I get mount to tell me where a device is mounted?

Quote:


Check your kernel for
Code:
 $ grep EXT4 /usr/src/linux/.config
CONFIG_EXT4_FS=y


CONFIG_EXT4_FS=Y
CONFIG_EXT4_FS_POSIX_ACL=y
CONFIG_EXT4_FS_SECURITY=y
# CONFIG_EXT4_ENCRYPTION is not set
# CONFIG_EXT4_DEBUG is not set
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PostPosted: Fri Mar 30, 2018 8:17 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

findmnt /dev/sdc1 reports nothing
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PostPosted: Fri Mar 30, 2018 8:29 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

creighto,

Its been a long time since I used lilo. I was wrong about the root= going in the append statement.
There is a sample lilo.conf
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PostPosted: Fri Mar 30, 2018 9:22 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Okay, this is getting really weird. I opened up the back to look at the hard drive(s) and this little laptop only has one 2.5" drive slot with a 250 gig hard disk; and the bios can't see any other storage except the bootable usb disk that has the minimal install on it. Is it possible for there to be a protected partition on a disk drive, that would survive writing a new partition table with fdisk? And that would report itself to the operating system as a second hard disk? It appears to be just under 30 Gigs, and I can't mount it.
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PostPosted: Fri Mar 30, 2018 10:34 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I talked to an old programmer friend at work (same one that helped me out to begin with) about the existence of a second hard drive according to fdisk, that doesn't seem to exist and that the bios can't see. He mentioned that hard drive manufactures have a reserved region that the controller on the drive itself will not report as existing, that *could* be combined and accessed as another drive if the controller itself was programmed to do this; but even he said that almost 30 gigs is too big for such a thing, and he didn't have any idea why fdisk could see it inside the OS but it couldn't be mounted.
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PostPosted: Fri Mar 30, 2018 10:41 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

creighto,

The hard drive can have a feature called the Host Protected Area,
This reserves some space on the drive and the drive lies to the operating system about its capacity.
Linux will detect it and leave a message in dmesg.
This space is not available to the operating system.
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Regards,

NeddySeagoon

Computer users fall into two groups:-
those that do backups
those that have never had a hard drive fail.
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creighto
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Joined: 21 Feb 2018
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Location: Louisville, Kentucky, USA

PostPosted: Fri Mar 30, 2018 11:11 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

My programmer friend recommended that I remove the physical drive, and reboot, then run fdisk -l and see it it's still there. I did so and it's still there, but now fdisk calls it /dev/sda. The new drive is 29.3 gigs but the one and only partition that fdisk can see on it is 297 megabytes. I'm starting to wonder if I'm looking at my own minimal install usb drive, which would explain why findmnt can't tell me anything; because even after I chroot, the minimal install usb drive is still mounted as the true root.

Now I kinda feel stupid again.
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creighto
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Location: Louisville, Kentucky, USA

PostPosted: Fri Mar 30, 2018 11:47 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

removing the boot usb drive during bootup didn't affect anything, kernel still panicked with a (8.4) can't find root filesystem error. So I reinstalled the disk drive. I don't know what to look at next.

BTW, what do all the periods mean when lilo is loading the kernel? The min-install kernel reports about 8 periods before it takes off, but mine reports more than four full rows of periods. Is that some kind of metric on the size of the kernel? Because I know that mine is huge.
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